As we know,
Density = Mass / Volume
Here, Soil density is defined in two well accepted concepts as particle density and bulk density. In the metric system, particle density can be expressed in terms of mega grams per cubic meter (Mg/m3). Thus if 1 m3 of soil solids weighs 2.6 Mg, the particle density is 2.6 Mg / m3 (since 1 Mg =1 million grams and 1 m3 =1 million cubic centimeters) thus particle density can also be expressed as 2.6 g / cm3.
Particle Density :-
The weight per unit volume of the solid portion of soil is called particle density. Generally particle density of normal soils is 2.65 grams per cubic centimeter. The particle density is higher if large amount of heavy minerals such as magnetite; limonite and hematite are present in the soil. With increase in organic matter of the soil the particle density decreases. Particle density is also termed as true density.
Bulk Density :-
The oven dry weight of a unit volume of soil inclusive of pore spaces is called bulk density. The bulk density of a soil is always smaller than its particle density. The bulk density of sandy soil is about 1.6 g / cm3, whereas that of organic matter is about 0.5. Bulk density normally decreases, as mineral soils become finer in texture. The bulk density varies indirectly with the total pore space present in the soil and gives a good estimate of the porosity of the soil. Bulk density is of greater importance than particle density in understanding the physical behavior of the soil. Generally soils with low bulk densities have favorable physical conditions.