Yes, absolutely. In fact, not just cracks, infrared thermography can also detect surface defects, changes in density and porosity, delamination, and concrete reinforcement corrosion in addition to cracks.
It is done actively as well as passively. In the active approach, an inmate temperature difference in the defects and it's surrounding is detected by sensors. In the passive way, energy as light is exposed to the surface, and then infrared cameras read out any abnormality in the release of that energy from various directions. For cracks in concrete passive inspection is usually done.
The surface cracks are generally spotted within a second, but it may take a few minutes to reach the deep cracks.